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You are at : All > Nucleotides > Nucleotides by Property > Naturally Occurring Modified RNA Base Analogs

Naturally Occurring Modified RNA Base Analogs

Cellular RNAs consist of four major nucleosides and a large number of minor nucleosides (~100) (Limbach et al., 1994, Cantara et al., 2011, Abeydeera et al., 2008) which are generated post-transcriptionally by enzymatic modification of the four major ones, or in exceptional cases, by base replacement (Grosjean et al., 1998, Czerwoniec et al., 2009). These natural minor nucleotides perform a large number of functions (Grosjean et al., 1998, Grosjean et al., 2005), some of which are yet to be discovered.

One function of minor nucleotides is stabilization of functional RNA structure (especially tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs) (Helm, 2006). The presence of modified minor nucleoside often stabilizes secondary and tertiary folding structure resulting in augmented thermal stability and reduced dynamics of the RNA molecule. Under certain circumstances, the presence of one or several minor nucleotides can induce an alternative folding, often comprising significant alterations in the secondary structure.

A substantial number of minor nucleoside 5’ triphosphate (mNTP) allows for in vitro preparation of modified RNA with RNA polymerases (Chelliserrykattil et al., 2004, Lauridsen et al., 2012) for new RNA function and folding structure. Research is required to determine which RNA polymerases are compatible with each mNTP.

Pseudouridine-5’-triphosphate and T7-RNA polymerase have been used to successfully synthesize mRNA with reduced innate immune response and toxicity compared to unmodified mRNA. (Kariko et al., 2007, Nallagatla et al., 2008, Kariko et al., 2005)

mNTPs can also be used in the preparation of RNA aptamers or ribozymes to modulate their stability and function (Karikoet al., 2005, Keefe et al., 2008, Klussmann et al., 2006). Such aptamers and ribozymes are expected to exhibit low, or none, in vivo toxicity since they are prepared from only naturally occurring standard and modified nucleosides.


N-1013 N6-Methyladenosine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1014 5-Methylcytidine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1015 2'-O-Methyladenosine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1016 2'-O-Methylcytidine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1017 2'-O-Methylguanosine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1018 2'-O-Methyluridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1019 Pseudouridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1020 Inosine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1021 2'-O-Methylinosine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1024 5-Methyluridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1025 4-Thiouridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1032 2-Thiouridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1035 5,6-Dihydrouridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1036 2-Thiocytidine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1041 2'-O-Methylpseudouridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1042 N1-Methyladenosine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1043 2'-O-Methyl-5-methyluridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1080 N4-Methylcytidine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1081 N1-Methylpseudouridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1082 5,6-Dihydro-5-Methyluridine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1085 5-Formylcytidine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1087 5-Hydroxymethylcytidine-5’-Triphosphate
N-1089 5-Hydroxycytidine-5'-Triphosphate
N-1092 5-Hydroxyuridine-5’-Triphosphate
N-1093 5-Methoxyuridine-5’-Triphosphate
N-1096 5-Carboxymethylesteruridine-5’-Triphosphate



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