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You are at: All > Oligonucleotides > Custom Oligonucleotide Components > Custom Oligonucleotide Components by Type > Backbones (Purification Options & Expected Yields)

Phosphorothioate RNA
PS RNA, Thioate RNA

Phosphorothioate RNA

Per Base Pricing
5.0 µmole $40.00
10 µmole $52.50
15 µmole $65.00
 
Purification Method 5.0 µmole 10 µmole 15 µmole
AX-HPLC $275 $375 $425
RP-Cartridge N/A N/A N/A
PAGE $500 $750 $1000
PAGE followed by RP-HPLC $725 $1025 $1325


Expected Yields*
OD260 units
approx. mg

5.0 μmole scale 50-150 1.48 - 4.44
10 μmole scale 100-300 2.96 - 8.88
15 μmole scale
150-400
4.45 - 13.33
 
Minimum pricing requirements may apply. Please request a quote for exact pricing or contact us to speak with a customer service representative.

*Expected yields are estimates for PAGE purified (~90%) unmodified oligonucleotides. Yield and purity differences can be caused by many factors, such as sequence and length. If you require a specific yield, please let us know when you place your order or request a quote.

Phosphorothioate-containing RNA (PS-RNA) oligonucleotides are the RNA analogs where one of the non-bridging oxygens in the internucleotide linkage is replaced by sulfur. This substitution may or may not change structural parameters and other physical [HPLC, hydrophobicity] and biological properties of PS-RNA oligonucleotides compared to natural phosphodiester RNA oligonucleotides. Because they are non-natural analogs of RNA, PS-RNA oligonucleotides and polynucleotides are substantially more stable towards hydrolysis by ribonucleases compared to unmodified RNA oligomers or polymers. This stabilization can lead to enhanced biological activity. Also, it has been shown that RNase A, RNase T1 and calf serum nucleases are inhibited by the presence of phosphorothioate groups in polyribonucleotides. These properties determine the use of PS-RNA oligonucleotides in in vitro and in vivo applications where the extensive exposure to nucleases is inevitable. Similarly, in order to improve the stability of siRNA, at least one phosphorothioate linkage is often introduced at the 3'-terminus of both sense and antisense strands.

RNA oligonucleotides carrying a small number of phosphorothioate substitutions are compatible with molecular biology cloning tools (DNA polymerase, ligase) and can mimic standard RNA oligonucleotides in side directed mutagenesis protocols. Phosphorothioate substitutions in RNA have been used to study the mechanism of action of ribozymes and were used for selection of aptamers. Phosphorothioate modification in RNA oligonucleotides can be combined with other base and/or sugar modifications.

In addition, the "S for O” substitution creates a chiral center at phosphorothioate phosphorus leading to a formation of a diastereomeric pair of Sp- and Rp phorothioates at each chiral center. Therefore the n-mer PS-RNA oligonucleotide where all (k – 1) internucleotide linkages are phosphorothioate linkages, can be a mixture of m = 2(k – 1) diastereomers. Each PS-RNA oligonucleotide diastereomer has unique structural, physical and biochemical properties and may interact differently with DNA, RNA, proteins and other cellular components. Chirally pure, all-Sp diastereomers of PS-RNA oligonucleotides are more stable to enzymatic degradation than their all-Rp analogs. However, the preparation of chirally pure PS-RNA remains a synthetic challenge for commercial production and the more easily prepared mixtures of diastereomers of PS-RNA oligonucleotides are commonly used. In some cases, with limited number of phosphorothioate linkages, individual diastereomers and even long PS-RNA oligonucleotides can be separated by HPLC chromatography.



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Reference(s)
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